TREATISE ON FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY

SUBJECT 5 THE SOCIETY

5,1 Family and tribe.

5.1.1 Societies for the human people exist who are it by nature in view of the the man and the woman are inserted in the same ones by birth and because from that society or community he receives the care and attention that make their survival and development viable.

5.1.2 These natural societies characterize themselves because they are able to take care of the minimum of necessities that offer an essential perspective of survival.

5.1.3 The relation children-father is developed in another many species animals, in everyone according to its instinct and nature. The characteristic of the generational relation between human beings is that they add to the transmission of the survival ways the education in the intelectivos knowledge that a prolonged relation in the time demands one more.

5.1.4 The societies that we can call natural can divide in two classes: family and community or tribe. Both are structured to the way of contents of sets, in which the tribe contains the family, and the grouping of familiar sets constitutes the communitarian or tribal set.

5.1.5 The essence of the distinction between the relations of family and tribe is framed in the affectivity. It agrees therefore to distinguish the nature of his own relations and the influence that each one of them exerts on a same individual.

5.1.5.1 The foundation of the family is in the affective relation and the genetic entailment.

5.1.5.2 The affective relation is incumbent the pair relations by which two people are related stably offering total satisfaction of friendship and sexual sensitive satisfaction. For the effective accomplishment of those relations a frame of coexistence or life in common settles down.

5.1.5.3 Within the scope of the reproduction that reigns in all the alive substances, in the human beings equipped with knowledge fit a distinction between reproduction and procreation. The first term would make reference to the physical-biological acts that produce the generation of new beings in the species. The procreation term is constructed on the creativity of the human spirit and indicates the determination intellectual to give the life to the children. This second meaning ties the human freedom for the voluntary exercise of the paternity.

5.1.5.4 The family completes itself with the generation of the children who settle down a genetic entailment, that is, a similarity in the personal genetic content that forms an affinity. During centuries she was spoken of the entailment of the blood like the vital element that related parents and children, but the development of biological science has been able to teach to us that she is to the characterization of the genetic code registered cellular the one that forms that affinity.

5.1.5.5 The affectivity in the human person presents very varied connotations that cause that the same one can project on varied beings without necessarily it produces a negative interference in each one of the relations. For that reason, the marital relations are not interfered with the relations with the childrento, but, in any case, by the affective capacity of its subjects.

5.1.5.6 The capacity to love is in the person in its spiritual dimension and it is identified with which everyone is able to generate in good towards the others. Being a spiritual power it does not have material limit, so that each personality marks the own affective limits, only are limited the corporal expressions of this affectivity reason why of physical limitation it corresponds to them.

5.1.5.7 The affectivity in the pair relation depends as much on the own personality that for some people is not limited an only relation. There they fit the existence of polygamy and polyandry families.

5.1.5.8 The genetic entailment of prole establishes bonds of union that suppose by a side the double relation with father and mother and the relation brotherly or of genetic proximity.

5.1.5.9 The existence of genetic relation produces consequences of very important social relations, like the unshakeable entailment of the son with each one of its ancestors independently of the affective life between such, and the distribution of rights and obligations between the brothers.

5.1.5.10 The coexistence of several generations in the time causes that the family extends grandparents, parents, grandsons and even greats-grandfather. All it originates that the personal relations are multiplied so that in addition to the diversity of affection they have to also coexist right and multiple obligations that form the familiar structure of very diverse forms, according to the social customs.

5.1.5.11 In the familiar group, very frequently, the affective relations with the dominion passions are confused, in whose small community it prevails a hierarchy of control and decision not always conceived from the respect of the mutual rights.

5.1.6.1 The origin of the tribe it is necessary to understand it in the double cause of the extension of the familiar relations with ties of clan and the conjunction of such with other next ones establishing a group with certain organization to progress in the dominion of the nature and the defense of the adverse viccissitudes.

5.1.6.2 The tribe characterizes itself being a society that is enough for the probisión of necessary means for the subsistence; for that reason, she maintains herself like unitary group without urgency to be united to others. Only the perspective of the extraterritorial relations has influenced to conceive nations by the addiction of tribal communities.

5.1.6.3 The tribal relations are constructed from the familiar relations, by extension, and for that reason the hierarchy and the submission have reigned like transfering of generational dominions.

5.1.6.4 The system of political relations within the tribe are established on the custom.

5.1.6.5 Although in our days the tribe in himself is lost use like social community, her influence perceives itself in the chaste ones, the nationalisms and other forms of contemporary relations non exempt from mediatic power.

5.1.6.6 In the tribe relations coexist of I dominate with relations on service, being these the most extended in the scope of the safe ordinary social life except in which refers the political structure that usually is held by the dominion of strongest. Of there the preponderant paper of many caciques.

5.1.6.7 In the scope of the tribe it is possible to be considered the relations between people without blood relations members of the poligámicas families. The extension of these parentelas historical help the formation of tribes, in whom disappeared the bow of the brotherhood they are governed themselves by the dependency of pater familias or the old ones of the common trunk.

5.1.6.8 The relations between tribes or basic communities with other resemblances settle down by agreements or pacts.

5.1.6.9 The extension of the tribal communities is obtained, in addition to by the procreation of their members, by the welcome of people or groups who demand their integration in the same ones, and last by the assimilation of other dominated towns.

5,2 Societies and associations.

5.2.1 Societies denominate themselves the sets of people united by relations that satisfy general necessities and in that each subject join of stable way according to parameters established collectively that determine similar rights and duties for all the members.

5.2.2 By associations it is had to understand those groupings of people who voluntarily assign themselves settling down specific relations to obtain a certain aim.

5.2.3 The interference of the semantic fields of societies and associations, because that both are social groups, does not have to darken the necessary distinction from the perspective of the social philosophy. The essence of that differentiation is in which the societies are social groups to which it is belonged to live in society, whereas the associations are voluntary creations with a more or less stable perspective, with a more or less important social content, but whose particular existence does not represent an exigency of the social group in which it is inserted.

5.2.4 An important aspect of the distinction between societies and associations is originated in the difference of the bond of allegiance to the same ones. Starting off of the exercise of the freedom of the person, while in the societies the entailment is followed of an incorporation of nature allowed in the limits of the possibility, in the associations the entailment is not only absolutely voluntary in the origin but also at every moment of the property to the group, only limited by the sense of the responsibility.

5.2.5 In some cultures it has been wanted to identify the society with the public management, and the associations with the organizations of private management. Although it can respond to other parameters disciplinary, from the perspective of the personal relations not always that correlation is fulfilled. For example, we could indicate as the companies of commercial aims with public management would be mercantile associations, and could consider with more success like societies the religious confessions, sport federations and other many professional corporations.

5.2.6  The societies exhaust plus their assignment as soon as they take care of the most basic and general necessities of the community. Among them is the family, the municipality and the nation. All of them constitute for the individual the relational referring next for the survival and the well-being. To each other they articulate by successive groupings from the family to the nation, being contained each one with all his members in the superior one.

5.2.7 Since the social groups are formed by people, the societies are joint of subjects and no of physical geographic or historical spaces. The boundary that can determine on a dominion does not have to be understood as the constituent mark of the social group but like the vital scope of that community. Thus, the condition of relative, neighbor or the nationality by the abandonment of the natural habitat is not lost. Equally the incorporation to the group settles down by the recognition of the members of the same one.

5.2.8 In the associations the contributor ones are it to own will like promoters or partners reconciled to the corporation. Nobody by nature is led to belong to an association, but by determination of a personal project. According to the statutes of the association, the incorporation of new people can be opened or be restricted, because when not covering vital necessities nobody can demand by right to belong its.

5.2.9 The legal system of the societies must settle down from the equality of right of all the citizens to the political participation. In the family, by their special roll, the rights and duties articulate on the exercise of the education of the descendants from the mutual respect of the adults.

5.2.10 The associations, within the legal order of the society in which they operate, they constitute his own system of rights and duties with freedom and according to the partcipación of his partners. It is necessary to consider that the contributor ones of the associations are at the same time subject of the public societies of which they comprise, and for that reason all their acts, even the associative ones, can they have repercussion in his relations towards the other citizens.

5.2.11 The associations can freely prescribe aims that are not for the exercise of badly. In that aspect the legal personality that they involve can be persecuted by the law like any subject that built in its social relations with badness. Of the social responsibility of the associations their directors according to the decision capacity respond.

5.2.12 The societies by virtue of which they take care of necessities vital of the human beings are called to remain in the time, although subject to the transformations that their members consider suitable. Most of the associations, however, as soon as they take care of benefits and conjunctural aims tend to remain temporarily or to mutar themselves with new structures with which they adapt to the social changes.

5.2.13 From that mobility in the adaptation to the aims the one is derived that for the development of the conjunctural goods the associative structures impose its effectiveness on the structures of public societies, whose aim is the promotion and the equitable distribution of the basic goods in the community.

5,3 Nation.

5.3.1 The nation concept expresses the reality of a set of people with stable social relations and feeling of community differentiated, seated on a defined territory, that shares a same language and assume a common history and culture.

5.3.2 Nation of country distinguishes itself, in which this term refers to the geographic space occupied by a community; and  of state, because this one reference to the political organization of a society.

5.3.3 The nation as soon as community by itself define themselves by the feeling unit and to seem of its members independently of the political recognition that of her is made.

5.3.4 A nation does not identify itself necessarily with the limits of a state, because the political and historical contingencies frequently divide to the territories and their people by strategic circumstances of power very diverse.

5.3.5 The recognition of a nationality primarily implies its citizens in which in use of his freedom they settle down like national community differentiated from other communities. This recognition adjusts in the democratic systems by the majority dicision reach of the inhabitants of a country.

5.3.6 The national feeling is so deep that it prints differentiating character, so that the nationality is had like own and only, although is possible to be favorably appreciated to belon or to be integrated in other political communities of different rank.

5.3.7 The consistency of the human relations is the foundation of the nationality. The origin of a nation is in own forms to be related the inhabitants of a country pass on generationally and that constitute a patrimony in the form to be and to understand the relations of coexistence of the town. A nation distinguishes what is own of its relation and the adjustment of its habits when converges with other communities.

5.3.8 The nationality in himself is not excluding because it assumes the incorporation of new members whenever they adapt to the own ways of being.

5.3.9 The nations evolve continuously in their cultural patrimonies according to the evolution of their members and to the degree of interrelation with other towns.

5.3.10 Several nations, sometimes, get to integrate themselves to each other by the assimilation between their members of the common customs. The characterization of that fusion is the majority common conscience of the only nationality between the inhabitants of the respective communities.

5.3.11 The scope of political autonomy of a nation comes determined by the will from its members and the stability and competition of its extranational relations.

5.3.12 The entailment of the history of a nation also determines its political organization, that is to have consistency in the exercise of the freedom of its members. The same history must illuminate the coherence responsible for the exercise of that freedom.

5.3.13 All nation conserves the political plurality of its inhabitants in coming from its social construction, so that the interpretation of the historical legacy cannot condition the progress of its relations socilaes. The nation as community is an alive being whose evolution is informed but nonconditional by a the past.

5.4 State.

5.4.1 The state is the political structure that a community occurs for the good government of the social relations.

5.4.2 The state is it as soon as will of recognized a national or plurinacional community by means of a constitution that institutes a common political system authenticated by most of its members.

5.4.3 The modern state responds to that will of common coexistence of the town, but in history the configuration of a state responded to the dominions of being able of a monarchy or empire, whose government dominated the citizens without supeditar itself to his consent.

5.4.4 The state demands a geographic demarcation on which to exert the dominion  and in whose territory its legislation forces to a all the citizens.

5.4.5 The political structure of the state admits nuclei of independent organization always subject to the common legislation.

5.4.6 The states can federate in superior political structures without losing their own identity and independence.

5.4.7 The modern state structure through the distinction of the powers legislative, executive and judicial, that respectively exert the representatives chosen by the citizens. This division of powers is made like guarantee of freedom for the citizens.

5.4.8 The state represents the stability of the relations between the people from the town to that serves, and for its exercise persons are legality elevated for such post.

5.4.9 The state structure corresponds to the consensus of most of the citizens of a certain historical space, but the same one can be modified by virtue of the personal freedom of its components. The state is simple structure  hold on to the permanent adaptation that for its better service the people makes by means of the legitimately approved legislative reforms.

5.4.10 The commitments of the state with other states force to the governments their fulfillment.

5.4.11 The relations between states are governed by some international organs, that can sanction the belligerent or politicals socially aggressive.