TREATISE ON FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY

SUBJECT 6  THE WORK.

6,1 Labor relations.

6.1.1 Labor relations are the ones that establish in common agreement several people with object to produce or to carry out a service in the society.

6.1.2 The essence so that a social relation is considered labor is by the purpose with which the same one settles down. From other positive sciences one gets used to designating as labor the subject personal benefits to repayment, but in the scope of the social philosophy the fundamental thing is for and why that relation is generated: when the purpose is the conjunction of the operativity of the works  to produce a good, the cause and aim of the relation are the work in common.

6.1.3 From this perspective the labor relation goes back to the origins of the social life.

6.1.4 Those can be excepted of the scope of the labor relations that jointly make the members of a family in the same operation, when the goods are applied collectively and an order of rooted tradition is followed. This distinction is based on which in these cases the interpersonal relations are constructed more reason why it corresponds to the familiar and parental entailment that to the same aim of the work.

6.1.5 If the labor relations are it by the aim of the agreement, they will be of the same species although they are developed in opposite economic systems, which will be distinguished within them will be categories, forms or classes different from relation. This approximates to us to inside consider the labor relations like a fundamental species of the social relations, that forms an essential similarity between the different societies by above from the differences that the concrete accomplishments of the labor structures establish al to be made in the different systems.

6.1.6 The labor relations can be binary, tertiary, etc. according to the number of people affected by that relation. When the number of elements is elevated or very variable usually we simplify denominating them multiple or collective labor relations.

6.1.7 The relations that establish the parts can be:

  1. Free and creative.
  2. Volunteers, with more or less conditions.
  3. Determined.
6.1.7.1 First they agree in society, but to the margin of any important determination. They are free in  the establishment of objectives and people.

6.1.7.2 Second they follow guidelines of voluntariedad in the election of the objectives, but they are conditioned by the social context and by the people with those they maintain the relation.

6.1.7.3 The labor relations also can be determined by the social system in which they are developed, and in them as much the election of objectives as people are certain beforehand in the social system.

6.1.7.4 The characterized relations in the first place are the ones that liberalism praises, and the last the ones that adjust to the communist social systems.

6.1.8 Of the way as the relation to the management of the work ties, the labor relations can very be varied. The main ways in the contemporary society are of two types: horizontals and verticals. The horizontals correspond to relations in which a same plane for all the parts agrees in which it concerns elaboration of objectives and participation of the yield of the capital goods. In the verticals, however, the scope of decision and dominion of the production is hierarchized. First they correspond to the partners of the companies, the cooperatives and certain forms of the configuration of the work in colectivity. In the verticals the employment relations are fitted.

6.1.9 The horizontal labor relations mark the creative sense in all  the contributor ones of the relation: person - work - production, in the scope of interchanges of services in the society. Each subject arranges with others without losing the connection between the creative idea of which it promotes for the society, the product that it places in the market and the repayment that it perceives of the rest of the society by the interchange of goods. This reality occurs the same in the minimum agrarian operation, the simplest factory, as in the great promoter or the implanted industrialist.

6.1.10 The vertical relations suppose in fact a certain spacing between person and production, by the lack of dominion that settles down on the process and produced object. In these relations the worker lends his creative quality in exchange for a financial quantification, resigning to the legal dominion on the production.

6.1.11 The employ relations imply, from the observation of the social philosophy, a certain uprooting for the personality, because the relation between subject and object, the projection on the done work, is mediatizada by the purpose that of her the employer does. Somehow the used worker loses the moral dominion on the good that is derived from its work. This spacing is depending on the customs and enterprise philosophy of the country, from where the employee is considered element vital of the corporation until where mere mercantile element of the production process is considered him.

6.1.12 Whichever it is the form of labor relation in which each person implies itself, the certain thing is that the projection of property on the good derived from her work cannot be avoided because the same one is product of its free ability to act, and creates an entailment of dependency in the product that is the nexus of relation in the interchange of goods in the society.

6.1.13 The human being cannot be destitute of his creativity without at the same time he is devaluated as  person. Its labor benefit cannot be evaluated like means of production in similar adjustment to the auxiliary machinery, materials or auxiliary means. The worker in any scope in which he serves his must essentially be considered like person, which should not prevent so that he is considered according to his qualities.

6.1.14 If the labor relations imply for a person the loss of their moral relation with respect to the product of their work, those relations acquire in the society the condition of dominion relations, by which the worker is undressed of that belongs it by nature. The dominion relations will be as much more alienating as soon as than to the worker is dissociated to the moral and material benefit of his production.

6.1.15 The labor relations imply one of the most important forms of interweae of the person in society, for that reason, according to which the political ideology that structures them recognizes its own nature will follow forms in which relations of dominion or relations of service in the society reign.

6,2 Labor associationism.

6.2.1 The work constitutes one of the main scopes of relation for the human person since it settled down in society. The production of goods is made in group, for which the individuals are associated establishing mutual agreements.

6.2.2 Those are labor associations all that in the society settle down in which the nexus that unites the intentions of the parts has labor character, or like aim or confluence of interest.

6.2.3 Of the many forms of labor association that have been developed in history they can emphasize like that they present a defined characterization more:

6.2.3.1.1 Rule is the association that settles down between a gentleman or pattern and other many people who serve to him with their work to those he compensates with a wage in currency or species. The relations in this system is of absolute dependency, and according to that dependency it includes only the work or the person and her properties the dominion relations radicalize themselves until the diverse forms of slavery.

6.2.3.1.3 The fact that the association between the parts of the rule is in their root of inequality does not prevent that the same one is constituted with a set in agreements, most of them dictated by one of the parts as you discipline.

6.2.3.1.4 In the case of the slavery it would be possible to discuss if it is possible to be asserted that some type of association exists, but as soon as social group really constituted for a labor aim can consider itself within the associations inasmuch as, doing violence to the freedom of the servants, always it even remains a certain degree customary that it regulates the behaviors between the individuals of the social group.

6.2.3.1.5 Character of the rule is the total desvinculación of the servant to the property, in special to the land, cattles, constructions, etc. The servant only executes a task of production or service without a root of the same one is recognized on the work outside which it wanted to recognize the gentleman to him.

6.2.3.1.6 In the labor associations of rule the repayment freely is established by the pattern. In the antiquity it was repaid with the familiar support, although in the modern society the gotten one to prevail the wage.

6.2.3.2.1 The guild is a labor association of independent producers that are related for the interchange of professional experiences and the defense of the interests common in the society.

6.2.3.2.2 The guild is a very old institution that is characterized to associate free professionals who exert their labor production directly offering it to the citizen in exchange for a price.

6.2.3.2.3 The guild contributes to the associate the interchange of experiences to improve its production. The existing competitiveness relaxes in the agreement of the parts to try a common progress of the profession.

6.2.3.2.4 One of the aims of the guilds is the defense before the society of common the inherent interests to the profession for all of them.

6.2.3.2.5 Many guilds have assumed the responsibility to purify the quality of the service of their members to the society and the defense in the face of the professional interference.

6.2.3.2.6 The influence of the guild like labor associations in the set of the society has been pronounced in the development of the professional bourgeoisie and in the liberal influence, to be constituted by independent people who merge their creativity like a social value front to the dependency as that served in any form as rule, in special when the same one square themselves to opportunities of civil or clerical power.

6.2.3.3.1 The essential character of the company constitutes the necessity to combine human and material means to be able to produce goods and services that exceed the individual possibilities or of the familiar group.

6.2.3.3.2 Although as much the company as rule uses other people's workers, their essential difference is structural. In the company the property is not personal but group and in the hiring of resources a policy of opened relation settles down more than the one of masters and servants.

6.2.3.3.3 The labor association of the company settles down on the concurrence of capital resources. Its origin is in industrialization, where important contributions of capital were required to install the production factories or to undertake the great projects of modernity: railroad, electricity, channels, ports, etc.

6.2.3.3.4 Although originally by company it was understood to the group whom the capital contributed and the directors that managed it, with time the human capital that develops the function of production has been recognized in its enterprise importance, so that the workers, with their specialization, in the modern company have happened to constitute one of the integrating elements of the enterprise association.

6.2.3.3.5 The creation of the joint-stock companies and the systems of transactions of the values of property in continuous markets have formed a separation between the capitalist proprietors and the managers of the societies, which has influenced in the despersonalización of the capital with respect to the responsibility in the production, being this one deposited in the components of the management director that executes with its personal resources the labor aims of the association.

6.2.3.3.6 The progressive disintegration of the moral relation between that contributes the capital and who manage the production is converting to the companies from labor associations to financial groups, whose interest by the production is relativized to the mere economic yield.

6.2.3.4.1 The cooperative is a form of labor association in which all the contributor ones are it of the capital, the work and the benefit.

6.2.3.4.2 The cooperative is most genuine of the forms of labor association reason why it supposes the direct implication of the workers in the aims of the production project.

6.2.3.4.3 The limitation of the implantation of the cooperative system must to two reasons: the 1ª limitation of the resources of capital of the workers. 2ª the difficulty to combine management criteria.

6.2.3.4.4 The cooperatives have replaced in some spaces the gremiales associations by the association of a group of professionals in certain aspects related to the commercialization of their products. There some of the agricultural or artisan cooperatives are fitted.

6.2.3.4.5 In the political systems it has been wanted to see in the cooperatives the first passage of the liberalization of the socialized economies. The conception of the property from the state or global community is transferred to those that directly works that certain socialized work. The slow attainment of benefits of this system is in the precariedad of financing resources.

6,3 Unionization.

6.3.1 The union is a grouping of workers constituted for the defense of its legitimate rights within the framework of the productive society.

6.3.2 The unionization was born with the industrial revolution motivated by the new situation of demand and supply of hand of work for the production of the industry. The sindicalización process is parallel to the sprouting of the great enterprise capitalizations.

6.3.3 The contracted workers became aware from the necessity to unite their efforts to vindicate the social rights that derived from the progressive enrichment that the industry generated. Proportionally to how they lost professional personality by the routine and the agglomeration in the work centers, the interpersonal relation derived in a common putting in from the own necessities and the collective claim to the patronos of the conditions of improvement of the work.

6.3.4 The union relations have structurally organized by centers of work and companies, by sectors of production, confederations between sectors, national confederations, international agreements. The structure is diverse according to the countries and the degree of implantation of the union conscience, but the system in essence responds to a same union philosophy that is based on the defense of the rights of the producer to be valued like person and not like production means.

6.3.5 The moral force of the unionization is in which the worker negotiate contracts labor from their primary condition of free people of the society that becomes industrialized. Therefore, their natural rights to participate in the communal property cannot be conculcado by the estimation of a higher yield of the production. If that outside therefore would be harming the essence of the social order.

6.3.6 The unionization must focus its purpose in the common good. For it they are had to take in consideration two slopes in the reinvindicación:

  1. The one of the natural rights of the person.
  2. The one of the participation in the socciales benefits.
6.3.6.1.1 With regard to the protection of the natural rights of the person, as they are: the defense of the life, the health, the mental stability, those that are derived from the familiar obligations, to the creativity, etc. they are inalienable and its defense must be exerted by all grouping in all time and place.

6.3.6.1.2 Between those it emphasizes the ones that concern the right to the work and the right physical integrity in the work by means of the sanitary prevention and of accidents in the productive process.

6.3.6.2.1 With respect to the proportional participation in the enterprise and social benefits the action filed by labor union cannot lose the perspective of solidarity and development.

6.3.6.2.2 Since the society is a global structure, the workers are affected to assume in their particular relations of work forms of compensation and stability for the social mass of producers. Thus it will be necessary to promote and to defend systems of social protection that they lessen the unfavorable conditions in which conjuncturally the workers by conditions of precarious health or unemployment fall. That work that primarily is incumbent on to the state, like fundamental guarantor of the personal rights of its citizens, must be daring and watched over the union mobilization for qu they are not left the workers unprotected.

6.3.6.2.3 The action filed by labor union must within the framework structure of the global development of the economy and the production for that reason an effective planning in the wage vindications is necessary, that allow to the national economy the structural growth that guarantees a protection to the generalized work and with future.

6.3.6.2.4 Solidarity must are recognized in the work fitting the benefits those who enjoy a position of producer consolidated with the markets of supply-demand of work hand, by means of the adjustment of the labor days and the inherent rights and duties to the reduction and prolongation of day and the extraordinary hours.

6.3.7 The unions must assume in their roll within the society the promotion between his affiliated of the commitment by the quality in the work, because it is an essential obligation of the person, sustained in the social aim that make from its creativity.

6.3.8 The personal responsibility sublies in all the process of social relation and for that reason in the commitment with an efficient productivity in the work like its contribution to the framework of social relations. The unions, although in their origin are formed for the vindication of rights, cannot be broken contact with the commitment of the duties corelative to the rights and, from that commitment in the labor relations by other people's account within the frame of the social benefits of the production, they must guard by an effective productivity of the workers like his more direct contribution to the communal property.